Novo registro de Blarinomys breviceps (Winge, 1888) (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) na Mata Atântica do sudeste de São Paulo

Reportamos um novo registro do roedor Sigmodontinae Blarinomys breviceps, uma espécie naturalmente rara, semifossorial e endêmica do bioma Floresta Atlântica. O espécime foi capturado no Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, um fragmento urbano de floresta atlântica na cidade de São Paulo, utilizando armadilhas de queda. O animal foi preparado como espécime testemunho e depositado na coleção científica do Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. A informação sobre o novo registro desta espécie, atualmente considerada “Deficiente em Dados” para o estado de São Paulo, acrescenta informações sobre seu status de conservação e plasticidade ecológica, bem como sobre áreas prioritárias para conservação.

SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277 clone recovered from microbiota of migratory birds

The production of Sao Paulo metallo-ß-lactamase (SPM-1) is the most common carbapenem resistance mechanism detected among multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates in Brazil. Dissemination of SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa has been restricted to the nosocomial settings, with sporadic reports of environmental isolates due to contamination by hospital sewage. Herein, we described the detection and molecular characterization of SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa recovered from the microbiota of migratory birds in Brazil. Three hundred gram-negative bacilli were recovered from cloacal and choanal swabs of Dendrocygna viduata during a surveillance study for detection of carbapenem-resistant isolates. All isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization?time of flight mass spectrometry. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. MICs were determined by agar dilution, except for polymyxin B. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing. Transcriptional levels of oprD and efflux system encoding genes were also carried out by quantitative real-time PCR. Nine imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered with 7 of them carrying blaSPM-1. Additional resistance genes (rmtD-1, blaOXA-56, aacA4, and aac(6′)-Ib-cr) were also detected in all 9 isolates. The SPM-1-producing isolates showed high MICs for all ß-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides, being susceptible only to polymyxin B. Interestingly, all isolates showed the same PFGE pattern and belonged to ST277. Overexpression of MexXY-OprM and MexABOprM was observed in those isolates that did not harbor blaSPM-1. Our results suggest that migratory birds might have played a role in the dissemination of SPM-1 producing P. aeruginosa within the Brazilian territory.

Bacteria richness and antibiotic-resistance in bats from a protected area in the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil

Bats play key ecological roles, also hosting many zoonotic pathogens. Neotropical bat microbiota is still poorly known. We speculate that their dietary habits strongly influence their microbiota richness and antibiotic-resistance patterns, which represent growing and serious public health and environmental issue. Here we describe the aerobic microbiota richness of bats from an Atlantic Forest remnant in Southeastern Brazil, and the antibiotic-resistance patterns of bacteria of clinical importance. Oral and rectal cavities of 113 bats from Carlos Botelho State Park were swabbed. Samples were plated on 5% sheep blood and MacConkey agar and identified by the MALDI-TOF technique. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby-Bauer’s antibiotic disc diffusion technique.We identified 596 isolates at the genus level and tentatively to the species level. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in all the dietary guilds, representing 87% of the total identified samples. The most common bacteria within bat individuals were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca and Serratia marcescens, and within bat species were Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas sp. and Staphylococcus sp. Frugivores presented the most diverse microbiota. In general, the antibiogram results indicated a low occurrence of resistance on eigth potentially pathogenic bacteria species. The resistance to antibiotics found on our samples was related mostly to the intrinsic resistance of the tested species.The low occurrence of resistant bacteria in our samples could be related to the well preserved environment where bats were caught. Once the major causes of resistance-acquiring are related to anthropic activites, the controlled access of tourists on certain regions of the Park seems to be effectively protecting the environment.