Enzymatic diversity of filamentous fungi isolated from forest soil incremented by sugar cane solid waste

Fungi are natural degraders of organic matter which can produce enzymes for many industrial and biotechnological applications. In this context, crude enzymatic extracts of fungal isolates were evaluated regarding their hydrolytic and ligninolytic abilities. The fungal strains were isolated from soil samples from Atlantic Rain Forest Park incremented with sugar cane biomass (filter cake), which allowed the selection of efficient lignocellulolytic enzymes. A total of 190 fungi were isolated and evaluated by endocellulase screenings. Thirteen fungi were selected about their hydrolytic and ligninolytic abilities. Among them, three isolates showed xylanolytic activity. Eleven of the isolates were selected by their cellulolytic abilities. Proteolytic enzymes were also detected for three fungi, allowing the classification as metalloprotease and serine protease. The isolates SPZPF3_47 (Mucor sp.), SPZPF1_129 (Byssochlamys nivea) and SPZPF1_141 (Paecilomyces saturatus) were selected for further investigation on their lignin peroxidase abilities. KM, Vmax and kcat apparent for lignin peroxidases were also determined. The strain of Mucor sp. (SPZPF3_47) was highlighted since this fungal genus was not well described about its isolation in the adopted conditions in our study, and showing ligninolytic abilities.

A new mutation in mgrb mediating polymyxin resistance in Klebsiella variicola

Polymyxin resistance is a public health concern -present in humans, animals and the environment -caused by chromosomal-encoding or plasmid-encoding mechanisms. Chromosomal alterations in MgrB are frequently detected in Klebsiella spp., but not yet reported and characterised in Klebsiella variicola ( K. variicola ). This study performed microbiological and genomic characterisation of three polymyxin- resistant K. variicola isolates (M14, M15 and M50) recovered from the microbiota of migratory birds in Brazil. The isolates were submitted to SpeI-PFGE, broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing us- ing Illumina MiSeq for analysis of genetic relatedness, sequence typing and detection of antimicrobial- resistance genes. K. variicola isolates belonged to two clones, and susceptibility tests showed resistance only for polymyxins. Sequences of chromosomal two-component systems (PmrAB, PhoPQ, RstAB, CrrAB) and MgrB were evaluated by blastN and blastP against a polymyxin-susceptible K. variicola (A58243), and mutations with biological effect were checked by the PROVEAN tool. K. variicola isolates belonged to two clones, and susceptibility tests showed resistance for polymyxins. In M14 and M15, phoQ deleterious mutations (D90N, I122S and G385S) were identified, while an mgrB variant containing a single deletion (C deletion on position 93) leading to the production of a non-functional protein was detected in M50. mgrB complementation studies showed restoration of polymyxin susceptibility (64 to ­­ ≤ 0.25 mg/L) as a wild-type mgrB was inserted into the mgrB-deficient M50. This study confirmed the role of a non-functional mgrB variant in conferring polymyxin resistance, stressing the role of this regulator in K. variicola and drawing attention to novel polymyxin resistance mechanisms emerging in wildlife.

Species composition of small non-volant mammals in the Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, Brasil

This study provides the first inventory of small non-volant mammals in the Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI), a protected area in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The data was collected from 2015 to 2017 in 16 research campaigns with a duration of five days each. Four areas with different phytophysiognomies were sampled throughout the dry and rainy seasons. We sampled small mammals using live-capture and pitfall traps. Eleven species were captured, composed of six rodents and five marsupials. The sampling effort involved 5,600 traps/night, there were 527 capture events, and we captured 302 distinct individuals: 174 marsupials and 128 rodents. Recaptures accounted for 42.7% of the total captures. No significant differences were observed in the richness and abundance of small non-volant mammals between the different phytophysiognomies. We also found no significant differences in the richness and abundance of small non-volant mammals between the dry and rainy seasons. The relative abundance (Ar) and constancy index (C) of the species showed that the three most abundant and common species in the PEFI are: Didelphis aurita, Akodon montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes, which represented 93.7% of the captures. Tomahawk traps accounted for 69% of the total captures, and pitfall traps were responsible for detecting the greatest richness, capturing 81.8% of the species. Comparing the efficiency of the different sampling methods in capturing small mammals in the PEFI, we observed significant differences between both pitfall versus Tomahawk and pitfall versus Sherman in the understory. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the past and current situations of the forest fragment which are in recovery after significant altered by anthropic activity. In light of this scenario of degradation and isolation, a defaunation process affecting the mastofauna is very likely in the PEFI, which favors the establishment and dominance of generalist species. This study could be the basis for further monitoring programs of small non-volant mammals. The data obtained here will also increase knowledge about the diversity of small mammals in urban fragments of the Atlantic Forest and demonstrate the importance of the PEFI for the maintenance of ecologically important species within the largest metropolitan region in Brazil. These species play important biological roles for the maintenance of ecological interactions and for the provision of rare ecosystem services for the anthropic landscape, which is of great value to the city of Sao Paulo.

Determination of the mental age of orangutans compared to humans

Objective: The main objective of this work is to compare the mental development of orangutans with the mental development of human children in order to find appropriate activities that allow a better development of these animals in captivity. Methodology: To accomplish this, we considered activities proposed by four authors (Papalia, Piaget, Portage, and Freud) that can be correlated to different stages (ages) of human child development. The activities were applied to two orangutans that live in the Sao Paulo Zoo. Results: Based on their behavior, it was possible to calculate the average mental age of each animal compared to that of a human child. Conclusion: Using the result of this study one can develop activities to stimulate cognition, sociability, and motor coordination according to the mental age presented, as usually done with human children.

Estudo descritivo: histopatologia e imuno-histoquímica para a detecção de patógenos em amostras de fauna selvagem recebidas pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Brasil

Objective: describe wild fauna casuistry data evaluated in 2019, in a reference laboratory in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, through histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis after the implementation of a pilot project of wildlife disease laboratory surveillance. Methods:descriptive study with survey of samples of non-human primates, birds and other mammals, received from two screening centers in the city of São Paulo. For this purpose, the referral forms and the issued histological and immunohistochemical reports were reviewed and data was tabulated and analysed by frequency and percentage distribution. Results: 233 animals of 20 distinct genera and/or species were received, being 191 (81,9%) non-human primates, 25 birds (10,7%) and 17 other mammals (7,3%); zoonotic pathogens were detected among the studied population, with a prevalence of bacterial conditions among the conclusive cases. Conclusion:histological and immunohistochemical analysis of wild fauna samples due the implementation of a wildlife disease laboratory surveillance pilot program contributed to the detection of some pathogens of public health relevance in São Paulo city, Brazil.

Compost produced from residues of a zoo park improves soil fertility and increases the growth and production of plants

This work aims to evaluate the potential of an organic compost in providing nutrients when added to the soil. This fertilizer is generated in a production unit located in the São Paulo Zoo Park in Brazil. It comprises animalmanure, plants pruning, dead trees, and solidwaste from water treatment and sanitary effluents. This compost’s growth power, which is efficiently used to fertilize the garden and farm of the zoo, was assessed. Six soil treatments were chemically characterized and tested in the cultivation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The nutrient (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Zn) contents in the lettuce and soils were evaluated using chemometrics. The soil fertility analysis showed an increase in the quality of the composted soil due to Mg and Fe and pH increase. Principal component analysis showed that Al was a relevant nutrient for all treatments before planting, whereas soil with mineral fertilizer or leachate contained high levels of Cu. Samples of compost-enriched soil exhibited high concentrations of Fe and Mg before planting. Cationexchange capacity, H+Al, P, K, S, and pH allowed the treatments’ comparison. The loadings plot showed that compost-enriched soil samples were characterized by K, Mg, Cu, S, and P; and leachate-enriched soil by Fe, Mg, and Na. Lettuce’s elemental analysis exhibits a direct correlation between the soil conditions and the quality of the vegetable produced. Compost-enriched soil produced larger plants yielding average weight leaves of around 3 to 10 times higher than all the other treatments, indicating its benefits for soil fertilization. This recycling process is a sustainable development tool that allows the reuse of waste produced in zoos worldwide.

Relatos da técnica de implante de penas na reabilitação de aves silvestres no Centro de Recuperação de Animais Silvestres do Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo, SP

Relatos da técnica de implante de penas na reabilitação de aves silvestres no Centro de Recuperação de Animais Silvestres do Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo, SP. A técnica de implante de penas é utilizada para reparar rêmiges e retrizes danificadas, restaurando a capacidade de voo destas aves e, consequentemente, diminuindo o tempo necessário para a reabilitação. É uma técnica muito antiga utilizada principalmente em rapinas, mas pode ser aplicada em outras aves. Os incidentes com linhas de pipa, o manuseio inadequado na contenção ou transporte, o corte de penas e as condições precárias em cativeiros irregulares são as principais causas da incapacidade de voo das aves recebidas no Centro de Recuperação de Animais Silvestres do Parque Ecológico do Tietê (CRAS-PET), localizado entre os municípios de Guarulhos e São Paulo, no estado de São Paulo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar os procedimentos de coleta, a técnica de implante de penas em rêmiges, além dos resultados obtidos pelo CRAS-PET com a utilização desta técnica na reabilitação de aves silvestres. A técnica foi aplicada em 85 indivíduos, de 17 espécies, sendo Asio clamator a espécie mais representativa com 27,1% dos procedimentos. A metodologia de substituição total da pena foi adotada para todos os indivíduos, a quantidade de penas foi variável entre três e 37 rêmiges implantadas por indivíduo. Para o banco de penas, o método por corte completo com tesoura de precisão no cálamo mostrou-se rápido e eficiente, as hastes de bambu e o cálamo de outra pena foram mais adequados por serem leves e flexíveis. A cola a base de etilcianoacrilato de média viscosidade apresentou melhor resultado tanto para a manipulação quanto no tempo de secagem. A anestesia geral com isoflurano foi a mais positiva para o procedimento, pois é mais célere e diminui a agitação da ave na recuperação anestésica. A técnica de implante mostrou-se uma excelente ferramenta na reabilitação de animais silvestres e os resultados mostraram uma opção rápida e confiável de reparar penas de voo danificadas e, consequentemente, restabelecer o voo de aves silvestres em reabilitação.