Wild and Domestic Canids and Their Interactions in the Transmission Cycles of Trypanosoma Cruzi and Leishmania spp. in an Area of the Brazilian Cerrado.

Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are parasites that infect multiple hosts including canids, considered bioaccumulators of parasites. Deforestation in the Cerrado biome has resulted in the exposure of wild canids to anthropized areas, where they may establish ecological and epidemiological relationships with domestic dogs. We evaluated the infection by trypanosomatids in canids from a Cerrado agroecosystem between 2013 and 2017. Samples of wild canids (blood, bone marrow and skin) and dogs (blood) were collected for parasitological, serological and molecular diagnosis. A total of 414 samples from wild (n = 131) and domestic (n = 283) canids were collected, including recaptures. We obtained five positive hemocultures from Lycalopex vetulus (n = 2), Cerdocyon thous (n = 1) and dogs (n = 2), all characterized as T. cruzi TcIII/V (18S rDNA) and TcIII/V/VI (gGAPDH); one positive skin fragment for Leishmania sp. (C. thous), one positive skin culture (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one positive fresh blood examination from a dog. Infection by T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. was serologically confirmed in 18% and 4% of the canids, respectively. Active transmission was attested by seroconversion events and occurred despite the low rate of positive parasitological assays. Wild and domestic canids infected by both parasites were detected sharing the same areas, pointing to a possible spillover of parasites among them.

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild raptors in Brazil

This research reports ticks on wild raptors in Brazil. Between the years 1936 and 2019, 127 larvae, 230 nymphs and 34 adult ticks were collected on 92 raptors (among 27 different species) from 35 localities in distinct Brazilian biomes. Additionally, an extensive literature review on ticks on wild raptors has been carried out, demonstrating that from 1993 to 2016, 29 larvae, 81 nymphs, 29 adults and 186 indeterminate immature ticks (larvae or nymphs) were collected on 41 raptors (16 different species) in 17 distinct localities in the Brazilian territory. The following tick species were identified on wild raptors in the country: Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772), Amblyomma auricularium (Conil, 1878), Amblyomma brasiliense Aragão, 1908, Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) sensu stricto, Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch, 1844), Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, 1899, Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844, Amblyomma parkeri Fonseca & Aragão, 1952, Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) sensu lato. This study is therefore a significant contribution to our knowledge of the ticks associated with Brazilian raptors.