Wild and Domestic Canids and Their Interactions in the Transmission Cycles of Trypanosoma Cruzi and Leishmania spp. in an Area of the Brazilian Cerrado.

Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are parasites that infect multiple hosts including canids, considered bioaccumulators of parasites. Deforestation in the Cerrado biome has resulted in the exposure of wild canids to anthropized areas, where they may establish ecological and epidemiological relationships with domestic dogs. We evaluated the infection by trypanosomatids in canids from a Cerrado agroecosystem between 2013 and 2017. Samples of wild canids (blood, bone marrow and skin) and dogs (blood) were collected for parasitological, serological and molecular diagnosis. A total of 414 samples from wild (n = 131) and domestic (n = 283) canids were collected, including recaptures. We obtained five positive hemocultures from Lycalopex vetulus (n = 2), Cerdocyon thous (n = 1) and dogs (n = 2), all characterized as T. cruzi TcIII/V (18S rDNA) and TcIII/V/VI (gGAPDH); one positive skin fragment for Leishmania sp. (C. thous), one positive skin culture (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one positive fresh blood examination from a dog. Infection by T. cruzi and Leishmania spp. was serologically confirmed in 18% and 4% of the canids, respectively. Active transmission was attested by seroconversion events and occurred despite the low rate of positive parasitological assays. Wild and domestic canids infected by both parasites were detected sharing the same areas, pointing to a possible spillover of parasites among them.