SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277 clone recovered from microbiota of migratory birds

The production of Sao Paulo metallo-ß-lactamase (SPM-1) is the most common carbapenem resistance mechanism detected among multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates in Brazil. Dissemination of SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa has been restricted to the nosocomial settings, with sporadic reports of environmental isolates due to contamination by hospital sewage. Herein, we described the detection and molecular characterization of SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa recovered from the microbiota of migratory birds in Brazil. Three hundred gram-negative bacilli were recovered from cloacal and choanal swabs of Dendrocygna viduata during a surveillance study for detection of carbapenem-resistant isolates. All isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization?time of flight mass spectrometry. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing. MICs were determined by agar dilution, except for polymyxin B. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing. Transcriptional levels of oprD and efflux system encoding genes were also carried out by quantitative real-time PCR. Nine imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered with 7 of them carrying blaSPM-1. Additional resistance genes (rmtD-1, blaOXA-56, aacA4, and aac(6′)-Ib-cr) were also detected in all 9 isolates. The SPM-1-producing isolates showed high MICs for all ß-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides, being susceptible only to polymyxin B. Interestingly, all isolates showed the same PFGE pattern and belonged to ST277. Overexpression of MexXY-OprM and MexABOprM was observed in those isolates that did not harbor blaSPM-1. Our results suggest that migratory birds might have played a role in the dissemination of SPM-1 producing P. aeruginosa within the Brazilian territory.