Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is defined as gastrointestinal signs, with incomplete response to dietary management and anthelmintics, histological injuries with intestinal mucosa inflammation, and response to immunomodulatory therapies.1,2 This report is about an adult, female, serval (Leptailurus serval), with history of intermittent episodes of vomiting, diarrhea and hematochezia per four years. Clinical signs: thickened intestines; macrocytic hypochromic anemia; hypoproteinemia; low serum levels of folate and cobalamin; low infection by ascarids; growth of Campylobacter spp in rectal swab culture. Treatment: fenbendazole 50 mg/kg PO SID for five days and repeated the protocol after 15 days; erythromycin 12mg/kg PO BID for ten days; and dietary trial with novel proteins. After treatment coproparasitological and Campylobacter spp. cultive were negative, but there was no remission of clinical signs and it were not seen significant differences in the ultrasonography and blood tests. To define between IBD and gastrointestinal lymphoma, endoscopic guided mucosal biopsy samples of stomach and duodenum were collected and mesenteric lymph node and full thickness biopsy samples of the jejunum and ileum were collected through laparoscopic guided laparotomy. Histopatology concluded the diagnosis of IBD and it was initiated treatment with budesonide 1mg PO SID, a locally active steroid with minimal systemic effects.3 There was complete remission of the clinical signs, significant reduction in the thickening of the bowel, and the blood tests were clinically normal. Chronic treatment with budesonide was maintained and after a year the clinical condition remains stable. In conclusion, budesonide was effective in treating IBD in this animal.
The black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) is an endangered primate species, restricted to the Atlantic Forest fragments of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, with an estimated wild population of ~1600 individuals. Integrative studies between zoo (ex situ) and wild (in situ) animals are crucial to modern conservation programs. They can demonstrate a substantial impact with the One Health concept, an interdisciplinary research frontier regarding the relations between human, animal, and environmental health. Studies of wild populations of Leontopithecus spp. are scarce and should be encouraged to provide baseline information to develop preventive and curative medicine in zoos and other conservation programs. Studying these animals in the wild can offer important reference parameters for the species. Comparing bacterial communities between in situ and ex situ populations can help us understand both conditions and the dynamics of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. To increase our understanding of resident microorganisms among these groups, we collected oral and rectal samples from captive (zoo) and wild black lion tamarins. We employed a culture method for the identification of aerobic bacteria. Thirty-three specimens were sampled (24 zoo and 8 wild animals) and 18 bacterial genera were identified. We found primarily Gram-positive bacteria in wild animals, whereas in zoo animals, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant. Some of the bacterial species we identified are potentially pathogenic, whereas several others are being reported here for the first time in this host species. Our results reinforce the importance of integrative studies for the future management and conservation of this endangered primate species.