The black lion tamarin (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) is an endangered primate species, restricted to the Atlantic Forest fragments of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, with an estimated wild population of ~1600 individuals. Integrative studies between zoo (ex situ) and wild (in situ) animals are crucial to modern conservation programs. They can demonstrate a substantial impact with the One Health concept, an interdisciplinary research frontier regarding the relations between human, animal, and environmental health. Studies of wild populations of Leontopithecus spp. are scarce and should be encouraged to provide baseline information to develop preventive and curative medicine in zoos and other conservation programs. Studying these animals in the wild can offer important reference parameters for the species. Comparing bacterial communities between in situ and ex situ populations can help us understand both conditions and the dynamics of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. To increase our understanding of resident microorganisms among these groups, we collected oral and rectal samples from captive (zoo) and wild black lion tamarins. We employed a culture method for the identification of aerobic bacteria. Thirty-three specimens were sampled (24 zoo and 8 wild animals) and 18 bacterial genera were identified. We found primarily Gram-positive bacteria in wild animals, whereas in zoo animals, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant. Some of the bacterial species we identified are potentially pathogenic, whereas several others are being reported here for the first time in this host species. Our results reinforce the importance of integrative studies for the future management and conservation of this endangered primate species.